Blockchain Scalability - The Issue That's Impacting the Adoption of Blockchain Technology Worldwide



Blockchain technology has been around for over a decade now and has been a topic of intense research and development. This decentralized ledger system, first introduced as the underlying technology behind Bitcoin, has the potential to revolutionize various industries and change the way we store and transfer data.

However, despite its many benefits, one major issue continues to limit its widespread adoption: scalability. In simple terms, scalability refers to the ability of a system to handle an increasing amount of transactions or data without slowing down or becoming unavailable. In the case of blockchain, the scalability issue is a significant barrier to its widespread adoption as it directly affects the speed and efficiency of the technology.

As use cases and adoption of blockchain technology grow, scalability becomes increasingly important. This is because public blockchain platforms need processing power, speedy internet connectivity and good storage on-chain.

There are many scalability challenges that blockchain technology faces, and there are a number of potential solutions to address them. One of the most common scalability issues is latency in the network.


  • Blockchain scalability is an issue that's impacting the adoption of this technology worldwide. The ability of a blockchain to process a large number of transactions at a high rate is vital for use cases that demand speed and cost reductions.

  • Scalability is a complex problem because it requires changes to multiple properties of the system, such as execution, storage, and consensus. These issues are often connected or dependent on each other.

  • One major problem faced by blockchains is state bloat, or the amount of data that needs to be stored across the network at any given time. This can result in the need for more computing power to process and validate each block, which can lead to high transaction costs for users.

  • In addition, state bloat can also slow down the processing of transactions. A common solution is to split the ledger into shards, each containing a separate copy of the blockchain. These shards can then be run in parallel to execute transactions simultaneously.

  • One of the main reasons for the scalability issue in blockchain is its design, which relies on a network of nodes to validate transactions and add them to the ledger. This consensus mechanism is what gives blockchain its security and immutability, but it also creates bottlenecks in terms of speed and efficiency as the number of transactions grows.

  • For instance, Bitcoin, one of the first and largest cryptocurrencies, can only handle an average of 7 transactions per second. This is far from enough to support the massive amounts of data generated by modern businesses and applications. Ethereum, another popular blockchain platform, has an average of 15 transactions per second, but it still falls short of the scalability required for widespread adoption.

  • The scalability issue is not limited to just the speed of transactions but also impacts the cost of using blockchain. The more transactions are made, the more congested the network becomes, leading to higher fees for users. This limits the number of users who can access the technology and can discourage businesses from incorporating blockchain into their operations.


The scalability of blockchain networks is critical for their success. In order to compete with centralized payment methods, for example, a scalable blockchain should process at least twice as many transactions per second as these systems do.

Fortunately, there are a number of solutions that can help blockchains scale up. These include layer 1 and 2 solutions including sharding, off-chain transactions, and layer-two solutions. Sharding, for instance, involves dividing the network into smaller parts, or shards, to validate transactions in parallel, increasing the overall speed and efficiency of the network. Off-chain transactions refer to transactions that are conducted outside of the blockchain, reducing the burden on the network and improving scalability. Layer-two solutions, on the other hand, aim to handle transactions off the main blockchain while still maintaining its security and immutability.

First-layer scaling solutions, such as block reparameterization and data shading, can improve the number of transactions that can be processed by a single blockchain. Block reparameterization can pack more transactions into a block and shading splits the network into partitions (called shards) that are assigned different tasks.

However, these solutions come with a few downsides, such as increased storage requirements on full nodes and the risk of state bloat. These issues can compromise the security and decentralization of blockchains.


Scalability is one of the fundamental problems hindering public blockchain adoption and practical applications in a variety of industries. Its resolution is essential for blockchain to be accepted as a viable alternative to traditional centralized computing systems.

There are many potential factors that impact scalability, including transaction throughput, storages, block size, number of nodes, energy consumption, latency, and cost. This SLR performed in-depth research into the scalability issue, associated fundamental factors, and state-of-art solutions.

Scalability can be addressed in a variety of ways, with first-layer solutions requiring changes to the core blockchain network software. These solutions are usually referred to as on-chain scaling options and include SegWit, block size increases, sharding, and consensus mechanisms.

In conclusion, scalability is a critical issue affecting the adoption of blockchain technology worldwide. It is essential for blockchain developers and the community to continue exploring and implementing effective solutions to this issue in order to bring the technology to its full potential and realize its many benefits for businesses, individuals, and society as a whole.


The scalability of blockchain technology is an important issue for both potential users and developers. As a result, there is ongoing research and development into ways to improve the scalability of different blockchains.

One way to increase the scalability of blockchains is through changes to their block size or transaction throughput rate. This can help reduce the network congestion and improve overall throughput.

Another method of scaling a blockchain is through its consensus mechanism. Some consensus designs, such as sub-sampling, reduce networking bandwidth by requiring that full nodes only communicate with a small amount of other nodes at any given time. Other second-layer solutions for blockchain scalability include state channels and off-chain networks that handle peer-to-peer transactions via smart contracts. These protocols are designed to reduce the number of blocks that need to be mined and increase transaction speed by avoiding the need for miners to validate transactions in the middle of the chain. These technologies have the potential to significantly improve scalability while maintaining decentralization properties.

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